Course Book : #110 - Basics of Nutrition

Basic Nutrition

Course # 110

2 contact hours

 

Upon completion of this course the reader will be able to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Define nutrition

  2. List essential nutrients and recognize dietary guidelines

  3. Learn the for “P’s” of nutrition

  4. List steps to proper nutrition

  5. Understand the food label

 

Definition of Nutrition

 

Nutrition includes the process of eating, digesting, absorbing, using, and storing food and fluids for body growth, healing, and body functions. The definition of nutrition is the science of nutrients in food and the body’s usage and handling of these nutrients. Nutrition is the study of nutrients and their digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, interaction, storage and excretion. A broader definition includes the study of the environment and of human behavior as it relates to nutrition.

 

Overview Of Digestion

 

Eating occurs in the digestive system beginning in the mouth with chewing and cutting food into portions to swallow, and passing from there to the esophagus to the stomach.

 

Digestion occurs in the stomach and small intestines with help from the liver, pancreas, and the gall bladder.

 

Absorption of food occurs in the small intestines. Absorption of fluid occurs in the large intestines.

 

Usage occurs as nutrients are consumed by cells of the body.

 

Storage occurs in muscle and fat tissue.

 

 

Six Essential Nutrients

 

The six essential nutrients are water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Almost any food you eat is composed of dozens or even hundreds of different kinds of materials, tinier by far than the smallest things that can be seen with the most powerful microscope, such as atoms and molecules.

 

Water makes up about 60% of the body’s weight. It helps regulate the body’s temperature and protects organs from injury. Water is lost through vomiting, urine, feces, perspiration and respiration. A human body should have at least one to one and a half quarts of water per day.

 

Protein is necessary for growth, the healing and repair of body tissues, and fighting off diseases. Every body cell is made up of protein. One gram of protein gives the body four calories of energy.

 

Carbohydrates are necessary for body energy, and most offer fiber to help with bowel elimination. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars during digestion and absorbed into the blood. Excess is stored in the liver and body fat. One gram of carbohydrates gives the body four calories of energy.

 

Fats are also sources of body energy. Fats assist in the body’s use of vitamins and in conserving body heat. Fats also protect the body ‘s organs from injury. One gram of fat gives the body nine calories of energy.

 

Function Of Vitamins

 

Vitamins each have a specific role in the body’s ability to function.

 

 

Vitamin A

Growth, Vision, Hair

Vitamin B (s)

Muscle tone, nerve functions, digestion, growth, metabolism, and formation of RBC’s

Vitamin C

Healing, resistance to infection, and healthy blood vessels

Vitamin D

Stronger, health bones

Vitamin E

Muscle function, formation of RBC’s

Vitamin K

Blood Clotting

 

Other Essential Nutrients

 

Minerals

Each have a specific role in normal body function as below:

 

Calcium

Teeth and bones, blood clotting, nerves, heart, and muscles

Phosphorus

Teeth and bones, use of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, nerve and muscle functions

Iron

Red Blood Cells to carry oxygen

Iodine

Thyroid function

Sodium

Fluid balance, nerve and muscle functions

Potassium

Nerve and Heart function and muscle contraction

 

 

 

Dietary Guidelines

 

The US Department of agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services have published seven basic dietary guidelines.

 

They are as follows:

  1. Eat a variety of foods

  2. Maintain a healthy weight

  3. Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fats and cholesterol

  4. Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products

  5. Use sugars only in moderation

  6. If you drink, do so in moderation

  7. Use salt and sodium in moderation

 

Lets look at each of these recommendations.

 

Eat a variety of foods: You need more than 40 different nutrients for good health. Essential nutrients include vitamins, amino acids from protein, certain fatty acids from fat, and sources of calories (protein, carbohydrates, and fat) These nutrients should come from a variety of foods, not from a few highly fortified foods or supplements. Any food that supplies calories and nutrients can be a part of a nutritious diet. The content of the diet over the course of a whole day or more is what counts.

Many foods are a good source of several nutrients. Vegetables and fruits are an important source for Vitamin A and Vitamin C, folic acid, minerals and fiber.

Breads and cereals supply Vitamin B, iron, and protein. Whole grain types are a good source of fiber.

 

Milk provides protein, Vitamin B, Vitamin A and D, calcium and phosphorus. Meat, poultry and fish are a good source for protein, Vitamin B, iron and zinc.

 

No single food can supply all nutrients in all the amounts that are needed. For example, milk supplies calcium, but not very much iron. Meat products supply iron, but not much calcium. To have a balanced diet, you have to eat a variety of foods.

 

Maintaining a healthy weight

 

If you are too overweight, or too thin, your chances of developing health problems are significantly increased. Being overweight is common in the United States. It is linked with high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancers, and several other illnesses.

 

Being too thin is a less common problem. It typically occurs with anorexia nervosa and is linked to osteoporosis in women. Being too thin also increases the risk for early death in many people.

 

The dietary guidelines suggest to eat in moderation. Avoid extremes in diet. Both eating too much and eating too little can be harmful. Be cautious of diets based on belief that a food or supplement alone can cure or prevent diseases.

 

SUGGESTED HEIGHT AND WEIGHT TABLE FOR ADULTS

Reprinted with permission from Doctor’s pocket fat calorie counter

 

Height 19-34 yrs 35 yrs and over

5’0

98-128

108-138

5’1

101-132

111-143

5’2

104-137

115-148

5’3

107-141

119-152

5’4

111-146

122-157

5’5

114-150

126-158

5’6

118-155

130-160

5’7

121-160

134-170

5’8

128-164

138-178

5’9

129-169

142-180

6’0

132-174

146-185

6’1

136-179

151-194

6’2

140-182

155-197

6’3

152-200

159-200

6’4

156-204

164-210

6’5

160-211

168-215

6’6

164-216

173-220

6’7

168-225

177-228

6’8

172-205

182-230

 

Table heights are without shoes and without clothes

The higher weights generally apply to men, who generally have more muscle mass and bone than women.

 

Choose a diet low in fat

 

Choose a diet low in fat, cholesterol, and saturated fats. Most health guidelines suggest a diet with less fat, and less cholesterol than the typical American diet, generally contains.

 

A diet low in fat makes it easier for you to include a variety of foods you need for nutrients without exceeding caloric needs. Fat contains over twice the calories of an equal amount of carbohydrates or protein.

 

A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help maintain a desirable level of blood cholesterol. For adults a healthy level is generally below 200mg/dl. As blood cholesterol increases, greater health risks become a big concern. There becomes a greater risk for heart disease. Risk can also be increased by high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking. Other factors include diabetes, a family history of heart disease, obesity and being male.

 

Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products

 

This guideline recommends that adults eat at least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits daily. It is recommended that at least six servings of grain products, such as breads, pasta and rice with an emphasis on whole grains. Children should be encouraged to also eat plenty of these foods. Vegetables, fruits and grain products are important parts of the various diets recommended by the US Department of Agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services.

 

These foods are typically a good source of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and components for good health. These foods are low in fat. By choosing the suggested amounts, you are likely to increase carbohydrates and decrease fat in your diet. This will also contribute to more fiber.

 

Three or more servings of vegetables are recommended. There should be a variety of dark green, leafy and deep yellow vegetables often.

The body also needs starches such as in potatoes and corn.

 

Two or more servings of fruits are recommended. Choose fruits as desserts and fruit juices as beverages.

 

It is recommended that the body have six or more servings of grain products each day. Eat products from a variety of grains such as wheat, rice, oats, and corn.

 

Vegetables, fruits, and grain products are generally low in calories if fats and sugars are used sparingly in the preparation and at the table.

 

Sugar in moderation

 

Americans eat sugar in many forms. Sugars provide calories and many like the taste of sweet things. Some serve as natural preservatives, thickeners, and baking aids in many foods. This guideline cautions against eating sugar in large amounts and cautions against frequent snacking of foods containing sugar and starches.

 

Sugars and many foods that contain sugar in large amounts supplies calories but are limited in nutrients. They should be used in moderation by most healthy people with low calorie needs, sugars can be an additional source of calories.

 

 

 

 

Salt in moderation

 

Table salt contains sodium and chloride. Both are essential in the diet. However, most Americans eat more salt and sodium than is needed. Keep in mind that many food and beverages contain sodium, accounting for the major amount of sodium that is taken in each day. (Much of the sodium is added during manufacturing and processing) Therefore, there is really no need to supplement food with table salt, other than to get the benefit of flavor. We certainly do not need added salt for dietary guidelines to get the proper amount of sodium each day.

 

In populations that eat diets low in salt, have a much lower incidence of high blood pressure. Other factors that contribute to high blood pressure include hereditary factors, obesity, and excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages.

 

In America about 1 in 3 people suffer from high blood pressure. Many of the times, blood pressure can improve by eliminating salt and sodium in the diet.

 

Alcohol consumption

 

Alcoholic beverages supply calories but have no nutritional value. If adults consume alcohol, it should be done in moderation. Moderation is defined as no more than one drink a day for a woman, and no more than two drinks a day for a male.

One beer = one drink

5 ounces wine = one drink

1 ounce of liquor(80 proof) = one drink

 

 

Food pyramid

 

The Food Guide Pyramid has a goal to help people plan healthy eating patterns based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

It provides:

  1. Ample amounts of essential nutrients

  2. Moderate consumption of fat, saturated fats, cholesterol, and added sugars.

Food groups that make up the larges group, or the base of the pyramid are made up of plant foods. These are the foods that should make up the largest portion of a healthy diet. They include bread, cereal, rice, grains, vegetables and fruits.

 

They are an excellent source of fiber, low fat, vitamins and minerals.

 

The pyramid’s shape also suggests that a moderate amount of lower fat/lean meat be included in a healthy diet. Look for foods from the milk and meat groups to compliment foods from the grains, fruits and vegetable groups.

Fats, oils, and sweets are at the point of the pyramid, suggesting to use only moderately.

 

Factors affecting good nutrition

 

  1. Physical health is the most important factor affecting adequate and proper nutrition. A person’s ability to ingest, digest, and transport food is affected by poor absorption, metabolism, and diseases. Medications can interfere with the proper absorption and utilization of nutrients.

  2. Emotional health can have a big impact on nutritional status. Trauma and disease cause periods of increased stress and depression, which in turn may require an increase in calorie consumption, or can contribute to en excessive amount of calories ingested. Small amounts of foods more frequently are suggested.

  3. Age, ethnic background, culture, activity level, social background and family social factors play an important role in nutrition.

  4. Sometimes the elderly have problems related to poorly fitting dentures, gum problems, and poor appetites.

  5. Activity level also affects a persons nutritional status. Decreased physical activity can reduce energy demands.

  6. Social background affects nutrition in the aspect that if an individual dines out frequently, there is a significant contribution to fat and calories in the diet.

  7. Cost is always a factor influencing good nutrition. Foods high in protein are usually the most expensive to purchase.

 

 

 

 

Four P’s Of Nutrition

 

  1. Planning

  2. Purchasing

  3. Preparing

  4. Presenting

 

Planning- A plan is essential to considering special likes and dislikes of a client as well as special diets ordered by the physician.

 

Purchasing- When the plan is created, the next step is to purchase foods with good nutritional value.

 

Preparing- Foods should be cooked to avoid unnecessary fat contact. Streamed, baked or broiled will have more benefit than foods that are fried.

 

Presenting- How the food looks is very important to tempting the patient and or anyone to eat well, A variety is important as well as small portions. Small portions are not as overwhelming to patients, and are generally a good way to increase over all consumption each day.

 

FOOD LABELS.. WHAT DO THEY ALL MEAN??

 

Fat Free- less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving’

 

Low Fat- 3 grams of fat or less per serving

 

Lean- less than 10 grams of fat

 

Light- one-third less calories, one-half less fat, one-half less sodium

 

Cholesterol Free- Less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2 grams or less of saturated fat per serving.

 

A serving size is according to the recommendation on the label, if you eat double the portions you must double the calories and the nutritional information on the label.

Keep in mind that the ingredient that the product contains the most of is listed first, and in descending order of the contents on the ingredients label.

Role of Vitamins

 

Much of what we take fro granted can be contributed to the proper intake of vitamins. For example, eye sight, healthy bones, muscle tone, breathing ability, ……. All a result of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Fat Soluble vitamins are absorbed by the lymph system with fat, carried by proteins and excess is stored.

Water soluble vitamins are absorbed in the blood, and excreted in urine.

 

Vitamin A has the distinction of being the first fat soluble vitamin to be recognized.

 

Water soluble vitamins include the B complexes and Vitamin C.

 

Table of B Vitamins

Correct name and other common name

Thiamin

Vitamin B 1

Riboflavin

Vitamin B 2

Niacin

Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide

Vitamin B6

pyridoxine

Pantothenic acid

None

Folacin

Folic Acid, Folate

Vitamin B 12

cobalamin

Biotin

None

 

 

 

Summary

 

Good nutrition is essential to good health. A balanced diet and exercise play a leading role in maintaining health and well being. Following the recommended guidelines and the use of the food pyramid will also be essential in planning for a well balanced day of essential vitamins, nutrients, minerals, and proper caloric intake.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Understanding Clinical Nutrition

Whitney-Cataldo

West Publishing 1983

 

Doctor’s pocket guide to fat and carbohydrates

Allan Borushek, 2002

 

United States Health and Human Services

www.ushhs.org

 

American Association Of Dietetics Association

Basic Nutrition

Course # 110

2 contact hours

 

Upon completion of this course the reader will be able to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Define nutrition

  2. List essential nutrients and recognize dietary guidelines

  3. Learn the for “P’s” of nutrition

  4. List steps to proper nutrition

  5. Understand the food label

 

Definition of Nutrition

 

Nutrition includes the process of eating, digesting, absorbing, using, and storing food and fluids for body growth, healing, and body functions. The definition of nutrition is the science of nutrients in food and the body’s usage and handling of these nutrients. Nutrition is the study of nutrients and their digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, interaction, storage and excretion. A broader definition includes the study of the environment and of human behavior as it relates to nutrition.

 

Overview Of Digestion

 

Eating occurs in the digestive system beginning in the mouth with chewing and cutting food into portions to swallow, and passing from there to the esophagus to the stomach.

 

Digestion occurs in the stomach and small intestines with help from the liver, pancreas, and the gall bladder.

 

Absorption of food occurs in the small intestines. Absorption of fluid occurs in the large intestines.

 

Usage occurs as nutrients are consumed by cells of the body.

 

Storage occurs in muscle and fat tissue.

 

 

Six Essential Nutrients

 

The six essential nutrients are water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Almost any food you eat is composed of dozens or even hundreds of different kinds of materials, tinier by far than the smallest things that can be seen with the most powerful microscope, such as atoms and molecules.

 

Water makes up about 60% of the body’s weight. It helps regulate the body’s temperature and protects organs from injury. Water is lost through vomiting, urine, feces, perspiration and respiration. A human body should have at least one to one and a half quarts of water per day.

 

Protein is necessary for growth, the healing and repair of body tissues, and fighting off diseases. Every body cell is made up of protein. One gram of protein gives the body four calories of energy.

 

Carbohydrates are necessary for body energy, and most offer fiber to help with bowel elimination. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars during digestion and absorbed into the blood. Excess is stored in the liver and body fat. One gram of carbohydrates gives the body four calories of energy.

 

Fats are also sources of body energy. Fats assist in the body’s use of vitamins and in conserving body heat. Fats also protect the body ‘s organs from injury. One gram of fat gives the body nine calories of energy.

 

Function Of Vitamins

 

Vitamins each have a specific role in the body’s ability to function.

 

 

Vitamin A

Growth, Vision, Hair

Vitamin B (s)

Muscle tone, nerve functions, digestion, growth, metabolism, and formation of RBC’s

Vitamin C

Healing, resistance to infection, and healthy blood vessels

Vitamin D

Stronger, health bones

Vitamin E

Muscle function, formation of RBC’s

Vitamin K

Blood Clotting

 

Other Essential Nutrients

 

Minerals

Each have a specific role in normal body function as below:

 

Calcium

Teeth and bones, blood clotting, nerves, heart, and muscles

Phosphorus

Teeth and bones, use of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, nerve and muscle functions

Iron

Red Blood Cells to carry oxygen

Iodine

Thyroid function

Sodium

Fluid balance, nerve and muscle functions

Potassium

Nerve and Heart function and muscle contraction

 

 

 

Dietary Guidelines

 

The US Department of agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services have published seven basic dietary guidelines.

 

They are as follows:

  1. Eat a variety of foods

  2. Maintain a healthy weight

  3. Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fats and cholesterol

  4. Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products

  5. Use sugars only in moderation

  6. If you drink, do so in moderation

  7. Use salt and sodium in moderation

 

Lets look at each of these recommendations.

 

Eat a variety of foods: You need more than 40 different nutrients for good health. Essential nutrients include vitamins, amino acids from protein, certain fatty acids from fat, and sources of calories (protein, carbohydrates, and fat) These nutrients should come from a variety of foods, not from a few highly fortified foods or supplements. Any food that supplies calories and nutrients can be a part of a nutritious diet. The content of the diet over the course of a whole day or more is what counts.

Many foods are a good source of several nutrients. Vegetables and fruits are an important source for Vitamin A and Vitamin C, folic acid, minerals and fiber.

Breads and cereals supply Vitamin B, iron, and protein. Whole grain types are a good source of fiber.

 

Milk provides protein, Vitamin B, Vitamin A and D, calcium and phosphorus. Meat, poultry and fish are a good source for protein, Vitamin B, iron and zinc.

 

No single food can supply all nutrients in all the amounts that are needed. For example, milk supplies calcium, but not very much iron. Meat products supply iron, but not much calcium. To have a balanced diet, you have to eat a variety of foods.

 

Maintaining a healthy weight

 

If you are too overweight, or too thin, your chances of developing health problems are significantly increased. Being overweight is common in the United States. It is linked with high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancers, and several other illnesses.

 

Being too thin is a less common problem. It typically occurs with anorexia nervosa and is linked to osteoporosis in women. Being too thin also increases the risk for early death in many people.

 

The dietary guidelines suggest to eat in moderation. Avoid extremes in diet. Both eating too much and eating too little can be harmful. Be cautious of diets based on belief that a food or supplement alone can cure or prevent diseases.

 

SUGGESTED HEIGHT AND WEIGHT TABLE FOR ADULTS

Reprinted with permission from Doctor’s pocket fat calorie counter

 

Height 19-34 yrs 35 yrs and over

5’0

98-128

108-138

5’1

101-132

111-143

5’2

104-137

115-148

5’3

107-141

119-152

5’4

111-146

122-157

5’5

114-150

126-158

5’6

118-155

130-160

5’7

121-160

134-170

5’8

128-164

138-178

5’9

129-169

142-180

6’0

132-174

146-185

6’1

136-179

151-194

6’2

140-182

155-197

6’3

152-200

159-200

6’4

156-204

164-210

6’5

160-211

168-215

6’6

164-216

173-220

6’7

168-225

177-228

6’8

172-205

182-230

 

Table heights are without shoes and without clothes

The higher weights generally apply to men, who generally have more muscle mass and bone than women.

 

Choose a diet low in fat

 

Choose a diet low in fat, cholesterol, and saturated fats. Most health guidelines suggest a diet with less fat, and less cholesterol than the typical American diet, generally contains.

 

A diet low in fat makes it easier for you to include a variety of foods you need for nutrients without exceeding caloric needs. Fat contains over twice the calories of an equal amount of carbohydrates or protein.

 

A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help maintain a desirable level of blood cholesterol. For adults a healthy level is generally below 200mg/dl. As blood cholesterol increases, greater health risks become a big concern. There becomes a greater risk for heart disease. Risk can also be increased by high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking. Other factors include diabetes, a family history of heart disease, obesity and being male.

 

Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products

 

This guideline recommends that adults eat at least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits daily. It is recommended that at least six servings of grain products, such as breads, pasta and rice with an emphasis on whole grains. Children should be encouraged to also eat plenty of these foods. Vegetables, fruits and grain products are important parts of the various diets recommended by the US Department of Agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services.

 

These foods are typically a good source of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and components for good health. These foods are low in fat. By choosing the suggested amounts, you are likely to increase carbohydrates and decrease fat in your diet. This will also contribute to more fiber.

 

Three or more servings of vegetables are recommended. There should be a variety of dark green, leafy and deep yellow vegetables often.

The body also needs starches such as in potatoes and corn.

 

Two or more servings of fruits are recommended. Choose fruits as desserts and fruit juices as beverages.

 

It is recommended that the body have six or more servings of grain products each day. Eat products from a variety of grains such as wheat, rice, oats, and corn.

 

Vegetables, fruits, and grain products are generally low in calories if fats and sugars are used sparingly in the preparation and at the table.

 

Sugar in moderation

 

Americans eat sugar in many forms. Sugars provide calories and many like the taste of sweet things. Some serve as natural preservatives, thickeners, and baking aids in many foods. This guideline cautions against eating sugar in large amounts and cautions against frequent snacking of foods containing sugar and starches.

 

Sugars and many foods that contain sugar in large amounts supplies calories but are limited in nutrients. They should be used in moderation by most healthy people with low calorie needs, sugars can be an additional source of calories.

 

 

 

 

Salt in moderation

 

Table salt contains sodium and chloride. Both are essential in the diet. However, most Americans eat more salt and sodium than is needed. Keep in mind that many food and beverages contain sodium, accounting for the major amount of sodium that is taken in each day. (Much of the sodium is added during manufacturing and processing) Therefore, there is really no need to supplement food with table salt, other than to get the benefit of flavor. We certainly do not need added salt for dietary guidelines to get the proper amount of sodium each day.

 

In populations that eat diets low in salt, have a much lower incidence of high blood pressure. Other factors that contribute to high blood pressure include hereditary factors, obesity, and excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages.

 

In America about 1 in 3 people suffer from high blood pressure. Many of the times, blood pressure can improve by eliminating salt and sodium in the diet.

 

Alcohol consumption

 

Alcoholic beverages supply calories but have no nutritional value. If adults consume alcohol, it should be done in moderation. Moderation is defined as no more than one drink a day for a woman, and no more than two drinks a day for a male.

One beer = one drink

5 ounces wine = one drink

1 ounce of liquor(80 proof) = one drink

 

 

Food pyramid

 

The Food Guide Pyramid has a goal to help people plan healthy eating patterns based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

It provides:

  1. Ample amounts of essential nutrients

  2. Moderate consumption of fat, saturated fats, cholesterol, and added sugars.

Food groups that make up the larges group, or the base of the pyramid are made up of plant foods. These are the foods that should make up the largest portion of a healthy diet. They include bread, cereal, rice, grains, vegetables and fruits.

 

They are an excellent source of fiber, low fat, vitamins and minerals.

 

The pyramid’s shape also suggests that a moderate amount of lower fat/lean meat be included in a healthy diet. Look for foods from the milk and meat groups to compliment foods from the grains, fruits and vegetable groups.

Fats, oils, and sweets are at the point of the pyramid, suggesting to use only moderately.

 

Factors affecting good nutrition

 

  1. Physical health is the most important factor affecting adequate and proper nutrition. A person’s ability to ingest, digest, and transport food is affected by poor absorption, metabolism, and diseases. Medications can interfere with the proper absorption and utilization of nutrients.

  2. Emotional health can have a big impact on nutritional status. Trauma and disease cause periods of increased stress and depression, which in turn may require an increase in calorie consumption, or can contribute to en excessive amount of calories ingested. Small amounts of foods more frequently are suggested.

  3. Age, ethnic background, culture, activity level, social background and family social factors play an important role in nutrition.

  4. Sometimes the elderly have problems related to poorly fitting dentures, gum problems, and poor appetites.

  5. Activity level also affects a persons nutritional status. Decreased physical activity can reduce energy demands.

  6. Social background affects nutrition in the aspect that if an individual dines out frequently, there is a significant contribution to fat and calories in the diet.

  7. Cost is always a factor influencing good nutrition. Foods high in protein are usually the most expensive to purchase.

 

 

 

 

Four P’s Of Nutrition

 

  1. Planning

  2. Purchasing

  3. Preparing

  4. Presenting

 

Planning- A plan is essential to considering special likes and dislikes of a client as well as special diets ordered by the physician.

 

Purchasing- When the plan is created, the next step is to purchase foods with good nutritional value.

 

Preparing- Foods should be cooked to avoid unnecessary fat contact. Streamed, baked or broiled will have more benefit than foods that are fried.

 

Presenting- How the food looks is very important to tempting the patient and or anyone to eat well, A variety is important as well as small portions. Small portions are not as overwhelming to patients, and are generally a good way to increase over all consumption each day.

 

FOOD LABELS.. WHAT DO THEY ALL MEAN??

 

Fat Free- less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving’

 

Low Fat- 3 grams of fat or less per serving

 

Lean- less than 10 grams of fat

 

Light- one-third less calories, one-half less fat, one-half less sodium

 

Cholesterol Free- Less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2 grams or less of saturated fat per serving.

 

A serving size is according to the recommendation on the label, if you eat double the portions you must double the calories and the nutritional information on the label.

Keep in mind that the ingredient that the product contains the most of is listed first, and in descending order of the contents on the ingredients label.

Role of Vitamins

 

Much of what we take fro granted can be contributed to the proper intake of vitamins. For example, eye sight, healthy bones, muscle tone, breathing ability, ……. All a result of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Fat Soluble vitamins are absorbed by the lymph system with fat, carried by proteins and excess is stored.

Water soluble vitamins are absorbed in the blood, and excreted in urine.

 

Vitamin A has the distinction of being the first fat soluble vitamin to be recognized.

 

Water soluble vitamins include the B complexes and Vitamin C.

 

Table of B Vitamins

Correct name and other common name

Thiamin

Vitamin B 1

Riboflavin

Vitamin B 2

Niacin

Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide

Vitamin B6

pyridoxine

Pantothenic acid

None

Folacin

Folic Acid, Folate

Vitamin B 12

cobalamin

Biotin

None

 

 

 

Summary

 

Good nutrition is essential to good health. A balanced diet and exercise play a leading role in maintaining health and well being. Following the recommended guidelines and the use of the food pyramid will also be essential in planning for a well balanced day of essential vitamins, nutrients, minerals, and proper caloric intake.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Understanding Clinical Nutrition

Whitney-Cataldo

West Publishing 1983

 

Doctor’s pocket guide to fat and carbohydrates

Allan Borushek, 2002

 

United States Health and Human Services

www.ushhs.org

 

American Association Of Dietetics Association

Basic Nutrition

Course # 110

2 contact hours

 

Upon completion of this course the reader will be able to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Define nutrition

  2. List essential nutrients and recognize dietary guidelines

  3. Learn the for “P’s” of nutrition

  4. List steps to proper nutrition

  5. Understand the food label

 

Definition of Nutrition

 

Nutrition includes the process of eating, digesting, absorbing, using, and storing food and fluids for body growth, healing, and body functions. The definition of nutrition is the science of nutrients in food and the body’s usage and handling of these nutrients. Nutrition is the study of nutrients and their digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, interaction, storage and excretion. A broader definition includes the study of the environment and of human behavior as it relates to nutrition.

 

Overview Of Digestion

 

Eating occurs in the digestive system beginning in the mouth with chewing and cutting food into portions to swallow, and passing from there to the esophagus to the stomach.

 

Digestion occurs in the stomach and small intestines with help from the liver, pancreas, and the gall bladder.

 

Absorption of food occurs in the small intestines. Absorption of fluid occurs in the large intestines.

 

Usage occurs as nutrients are consumed by cells of the body.

 

Storage occurs in muscle and fat tissue.

 

 

Six Essential Nutrients

 

The six essential nutrients are water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Almost any food you eat is composed of dozens or even hundreds of different kinds of materials, tinier by far than the smallest things that can be seen with the most powerful microscope, such as atoms and molecules.

 

Water makes up about 60% of the body’s weight. It helps regulate the body’s temperature and protects organs from injury. Water is lost through vomiting, urine, feces, perspiration and respiration. A human body should have at least one to one and a half quarts of water per day.

 

Protein is necessary for growth, the healing and repair of body tissues, and fighting off diseases. Every body cell is made up of protein. One gram of protein gives the body four calories of energy.

 

Carbohydrates are necessary for body energy, and most offer fiber to help with bowel elimination. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars during digestion and absorbed into the blood. Excess is stored in the liver and body fat. One gram of carbohydrates gives the body four calories of energy.

 

Fats are also sources of body energy. Fats assist in the body’s use of vitamins and in conserving body heat. Fats also protect the body ‘s organs from injury. One gram of fat gives the body nine calories of energy.

 

Function Of Vitamins

 

Vitamins each have a specific role in the body’s ability to function.

 

 

Vitamin A

Growth, Vision, Hair

Vitamin B (s)

Muscle tone, nerve functions, digestion, growth, metabolism, and formation of RBC’s

Vitamin C

Healing, resistance to infection, and healthy blood vessels

Vitamin D

Stronger, health bones

Vitamin E

Muscle function, formation of RBC’s

Vitamin K

Blood Clotting

 

Other Essential Nutrients

 

Minerals

Each have a specific role in normal body function as below:

 

Calcium

Teeth and bones, blood clotting, nerves, heart, and muscles

Phosphorus

Teeth and bones, use of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, nerve and muscle functions

Iron

Red Blood Cells to carry oxygen

Iodine

Thyroid function

Sodium

Fluid balance, nerve and muscle functions

Potassium

Nerve and Heart function and muscle contraction

 

 

 

Dietary Guidelines

 

The US Department of agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services have published seven basic dietary guidelines.

 

They are as follows:

  1. Eat a variety of foods

  2. Maintain a healthy weight

  3. Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fats and cholesterol

  4. Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products

  5. Use sugars only in moderation

  6. If you drink, do so in moderation

  7. Use salt and sodium in moderation

 

Lets look at each of these recommendations.

 

Eat a variety of foods: You need more than 40 different nutrients for good health. Essential nutrients include vitamins, amino acids from protein, certain fatty acids from fat, and sources of calories (protein, carbohydrates, and fat) These nutrients should come from a variety of foods, not from a few highly fortified foods or supplements. Any food that supplies calories and nutrients can be a part of a nutritious diet. The content of the diet over the course of a whole day or more is what counts.

Many foods are a good source of several nutrients. Vegetables and fruits are an important source for Vitamin A and Vitamin C, folic acid, minerals and fiber.

Breads and cereals supply Vitamin B, iron, and protein. Whole grain types are a good source of fiber.

 

Milk provides protein, Vitamin B, Vitamin A and D, calcium and phosphorus. Meat, poultry and fish are a good source for protein, Vitamin B, iron and zinc.

 

No single food can supply all nutrients in all the amounts that are needed. For example, milk supplies calcium, but not very much iron. Meat products supply iron, but not much calcium. To have a balanced diet, you have to eat a variety of foods.

 

Maintaining a healthy weight

 

If you are too overweight, or too thin, your chances of developing health problems are significantly increased. Being overweight is common in the United States. It is linked with high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancers, and several other illnesses.

 

Being too thin is a less common problem. It typically occurs with anorexia nervosa and is linked to osteoporosis in women. Being too thin also increases the risk for early death in many people.

 

The dietary guidelines suggest to eat in moderation. Avoid extremes in diet. Both eating too much and eating too little can be harmful. Be cautious of diets based on belief that a food or supplement alone can cure or prevent diseases.

 

SUGGESTED HEIGHT AND WEIGHT TABLE FOR ADULTS

Reprinted with permission from Doctor’s pocket fat calorie counter

 

Height 19-34 yrs 35 yrs and over

5’0

98-128

108-138

5’1

101-132

111-143

5’2

104-137

115-148

5’3

107-141

119-152

5’4

111-146

122-157

5’5

114-150

126-158

5’6

118-155

130-160

5’7

121-160

134-170

5’8

128-164

138-178

5’9

129-169

142-180

6’0

132-174

146-185

6’1

136-179

151-194

6’2

140-182

155-197

6’3

152-200

159-200

6’4

156-204

164-210

6’5

160-211

168-215

6’6

164-216

173-220

6’7

168-225

177-228

6’8

172-205

182-230

 

Table heights are without shoes and without clothes

The higher weights generally apply to men, who generally have more muscle mass and bone than women.

 

Choose a diet low in fat

 

Choose a diet low in fat, cholesterol, and saturated fats. Most health guidelines suggest a diet with less fat, and less cholesterol than the typical American diet, generally contains.

 

A diet low in fat makes it easier for you to include a variety of foods you need for nutrients without exceeding caloric needs. Fat contains over twice the calories of an equal amount of carbohydrates or protein.

 

A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help maintain a desirable level of blood cholesterol. For adults a healthy level is generally below 200mg/dl. As blood cholesterol increases, greater health risks become a big concern. There becomes a greater risk for heart disease. Risk can also be increased by high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking. Other factors include diabetes, a family history of heart disease, obesity and being male.

 

Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products

 

This guideline recommends that adults eat at least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits daily. It is recommended that at least six servings of grain products, such as breads, pasta and rice with an emphasis on whole grains. Children should be encouraged to also eat plenty of these foods. Vegetables, fruits and grain products are important parts of the various diets recommended by the US Department of Agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services.

 

These foods are typically a good source of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and components for good health. These foods are low in fat. By choosing the suggested amounts, you are likely to increase carbohydrates and decrease fat in your diet. This will also contribute to more fiber.

 

Three or more servings of vegetables are recommended. There should be a variety of dark green, leafy and deep yellow vegetables often.

The body also needs starches such as in potatoes and corn.

 

Two or more servings of fruits are recommended. Choose fruits as desserts and fruit juices as beverages.

 

It is recommended that the body have six or more servings of grain products each day. Eat products from a variety of grains such as wheat, rice, oats, and corn.

 

Vegetables, fruits, and grain products are generally low in calories if fats and sugars are used sparingly in the preparation and at the table.

 

Sugar in moderation

 

Americans eat sugar in many forms. Sugars provide calories and many like the taste of sweet things. Some serve as natural preservatives, thickeners, and baking aids in many foods. This guideline cautions against eating sugar in large amounts and cautions against frequent snacking of foods containing sugar and starches.

 

Sugars and many foods that contain sugar in large amounts supplies calories but are limited in nutrients. They should be used in moderation by most healthy people with low calorie needs, sugars can be an additional source of calories.

 

 

 

 

Salt in moderation

 

Table salt contains sodium and chloride. Both are essential in the diet. However, most Americans eat more salt and sodium than is needed. Keep in mind that many food and beverages contain sodium, accounting for the major amount of sodium that is taken in each day. (Much of the sodium is added during manufacturing and processing) Therefore, there is really no need to supplement food with table salt, other than to get the benefit of flavor. We certainly do not need added salt for dietary guidelines to get the proper amount of sodium each day.

 

In populations that eat diets low in salt, have a much lower incidence of high blood pressure. Other factors that contribute to high blood pressure include hereditary factors, obesity, and excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages.

 

In America about 1 in 3 people suffer from high blood pressure. Many of the times, blood pressure can improve by eliminating salt and sodium in the diet.

 

Alcohol consumption

 

Alcoholic beverages supply calories but have no nutritional value. If adults consume alcohol, it should be done in moderation. Moderation is defined as no more than one drink a day for a woman, and no more than two drinks a day for a male.

One beer = one drink

5 ounces wine = one drink

1 ounce of liquor(80 proof) = one drink

 

 

Food pyramid

 

The Food Guide Pyramid has a goal to help people plan healthy eating patterns based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

It provides:

  1. Ample amounts of essential nutrients

  2. Moderate consumption of fat, saturated fats, cholesterol, and added sugars.

Food groups that make up the larges group, or the base of the pyramid are made up of plant foods. These are the foods that should make up the largest portion of a healthy diet. They include bread, cereal, rice, grains, vegetables and fruits.

 

They are an excellent source of fiber, low fat, vitamins and minerals.

 

The pyramid’s shape also suggests that a moderate amount of lower fat/lean meat be included in a healthy diet. Look for foods from the milk and meat groups to compliment foods from the grains, fruits and vegetable groups.

Fats, oils, and sweets are at the point of the pyramid, suggesting to use only moderately.

 

Factors affecting good nutrition

 

  1. Physical health is the most important factor affecting adequate and proper nutrition. A person’s ability to ingest, digest, and transport food is affected by poor absorption, metabolism, and diseases. Medications can interfere with the proper absorption and utilization of nutrients.

  2. Emotional health can have a big impact on nutritional status. Trauma and disease cause periods of increased stress and depression, which in turn may require an increase in calorie consumption, or can contribute to en excessive amount of calories ingested. Small amounts of foods more frequently are suggested.

  3. Age, ethnic background, culture, activity level, social background and family social factors play an important role in nutrition.

  4. Sometimes the elderly have problems related to poorly fitting dentures, gum problems, and poor appetites.

  5. Activity level also affects a persons nutritional status. Decreased physical activity can reduce energy demands.

  6. Social background affects nutrition in the aspect that if an individual dines out frequently, there is a significant contribution to fat and calories in the diet.

  7. Cost is always a factor influencing good nutrition. Foods high in protein are usually the most expensive to purchase.

 

 

 

 

Four P’s Of Nutrition

 

  1. Planning

  2. Purchasing

  3. Preparing

  4. Presenting

 

Planning- A plan is essential to considering special likes and dislikes of a client as well as special diets ordered by the physician.

 

Purchasing- When the plan is created, the next step is to purchase foods with good nutritional value.

 

Preparing- Foods should be cooked to avoid unnecessary fat contact. Streamed, baked or broiled will have more benefit than foods that are fried.

 

Presenting- How the food looks is very important to tempting the patient and or anyone to eat well, A variety is important as well as small portions. Small portions are not as overwhelming to patients, and are generally a good way to increase over all consumption each day.

 

FOOD LABELS.. WHAT DO THEY ALL MEAN??

 

Fat Free- less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving’

 

Low Fat- 3 grams of fat or less per serving

 

Lean- less than 10 grams of fat

 

Light- one-third less calories, one-half less fat, one-half less sodium

 

Cholesterol Free- Less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2 grams or less of saturated fat per serving.

 

A serving size is according to the recommendation on the label, if you eat double the portions you must double the calories and the nutritional information on the label.

Keep in mind that the ingredient that the product contains the most of is listed first, and in descending order of the contents on the ingredients label.

Role of Vitamins

 

Much of what we take fro granted can be contributed to the proper intake of vitamins. For example, eye sight, healthy bones, muscle tone, breathing ability, ……. All a result of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Fat Soluble vitamins are absorbed by the lymph system with fat, carried by proteins and excess is stored.

Water soluble vitamins are absorbed in the blood, and excreted in urine.

 

Vitamin A has the distinction of being the first fat soluble vitamin to be recognized.

 

Water soluble vitamins include the B complexes and Vitamin C.

 

Table of B Vitamins

Correct name and other common name

Thiamin

Vitamin B 1

Riboflavin

Vitamin B 2

Niacin

Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide

Vitamin B6

pyridoxine

Pantothenic acid

None

Folacin

Folic Acid, Folate

Vitamin B 12

cobalamin

Biotin

None

 

 

 

Summary

 

Good nutrition is essential to good health. A balanced diet and exercise play a leading role in maintaining health and well being. Following the recommended guidelines and the use of the food pyramid will also be essential in planning for a well balanced day of essential vitamins, nutrients, minerals, and proper caloric intake.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Understanding Clinical Nutrition

Whitney-Cataldo

West Publishing 1983

 

Doctor’s pocket guide to fat and carbohydrates

Allan Borushek, 2002

 

United States Health and Human Services

www.ushhs.org

 

American Association Of Dietetics Association